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3MA-II Microstructure and Stress Analyzer

The Situation

Correct heat treatment and machining processes are fundamental for the functional behavior and fatigue strength of stress-imposed components.  Until now, the only methods in common practical use to evaluate surface areas of parts and components are conventional techniques such as metallurgy, X-ray diffraction, and conventional hardness testing techniques.  However, these techniques cannot easily be integrated into production processes, as their testing speed is too slow and as some of these techniques are also destructive.  Nevertheless, the results obtained from these techniques can be used for a statistical process control.

Our Solution

Nondestructive testing techniques, which can be integrated into production processes are available now.  A complete inspection with acceptable testing speeds can be achieved.  Fast evaluation and recording of relevant quality parameters can be accomplished by combining complementary information obtained through various microstructure and stress sensitive measuring parameters simultaneously.  Approximation functions to determine the quality characteristics can be obtained using multiple regression analysis.  The main application areas are the nondestructive inspection of case-hardened components and machined surfaces.  

The objective is the nondestructive determination of the following material characteristics:

  • Surface and subsurface hardness

  • Residual stress

  • Case depth

  • Machining defects

Our System

The 3MA-II system (Multi-Parameter Micro-Magnetic Microstructure and Stress Analyzer)  is the adequate instrument for these applications .  The 3MA-II system consists of a PC with monitor, control and evaluation unit, power supply for magnetization, and an analog part with different potential modules to measure various micro-magnetic parameters such as: 

  • Barkhausen Noise (BN)
    Recording of Barkhausen Noise amplitude vs. magnetic field strength (H)
    Measuring parameters:
    - Mmax,  maximum of BN
    - Hcm,  coercivity of BN
    D Hm,  width of M(H) envelope at distinct M values. 

  • Incremental Permeability (Dm)
    Recording of Incremental Permeability vs. Tangential (magnetic) Field Strength.
    Measuring parameters:
    Dmmax, amplitude of Dm
    - Hcm,  coercivity of Dm
    - D Hm, width of

  • Tangential (magnetic) Field Strength (Ht(t))
    Recording the time signal of tangential magnetic field strength
    Measuring parameters:
    - K,  distortion factor*
    - Hco,  coercivity*
      (* both values are obtained through harmonics analysis of Ht(t))

  • Eddy Current Impedance

Sensor System

The sensor is an electromagnetic transmitter/receiver system.  The multi-parameter sensor records different micro-magnetic parameters simultaneously.  The sensors can be designed and built according to the individual requirements of the customer.

Data Evaluation and Documentation

When the system is working in a production process, the unit can be custom-tailored according to the customer's requirements.  The unit can be connected to other commercially available computers for advanced signal processing and evaluation in scientific applications.



  • Fast nondestructive testing

  • Continuous inspection and documentation of quality parameters

  • Replacement of destructive testing

  • Economical production through reduced rejections

  • Complete process control through integration of the 3MA-II system into production processes

  • Modular design allows for customized configurations and individual adaptation of the user interface software

  • Standard data interfaces available


Nondestructive testing and evaluation of:

  • Surface and subsurface hardness 

  • Case depth of case-hardened parts (induction, flame, laser-hardening, etc.)

  • Hardness and residual stresses (simultaneously)

  • High-resolution residual stresses and microstructures (e.g. welded components)

  • Machining processes (e.g. grinding, turning, etc.)

The 3MA-II test system consists of the following components:

  • Hardware front-end w/ integrated controller

  • Ethernet interface to control 3MA-II front-end from any PC

  • Sensor System

Magnetizing yoke and transmitter/receiver unit; custom-design to accommodate individual requirements available upon request

  • Software
    - Signal evaluation and documentation on WindowsXP, Windows7 and
      Windows10 platform
    - Multiple regression analysis to determine process/quality parameters using
      evaluated approximation functions

Information Request Form3MA-II Datasheet



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Last modified: July 13, 2018